What Traffic collision reconstruction mean?
Vehicular accident reconstruction is the scientific process of investigating, analyzing, and drawing conclusions about the causes and events during a vehicle collision.
Reconstructionists are employed to conduct in-depth collision analysis and reconstruction to identify the collision causation and contributing factors in different types of collisions, including the role of the driver(s), vehicle(s), roadway and the environment.
The laws of physics and engineering principles such as the conservation of linear momentum, work-energy methods, and kinematics are the basis for these analyses and may make use of software to calculate useful quantities.
The accident reconstruction provides rigorous analysis that expert witnesses can present at trial. Accident reconstructions are done in cases involving fatalities, and often when personal injury is involved.
Results from accident reconstructions are also useful in developing recommendations for making roads and highways safer, as well as improving safety aspects of motor vehicle designs.
These reconstructions are often conducted by forensic engineers, specialized units in law enforcement agencies, or private consultants.
The accident scene
Scene inspections and data recovery involve visiting the scene of the accident and investigating all of the vehicles involved in the collision.
Investigations involve collecting evidence such as scene photographs, video of the collision, measurements of the scene, eyewitness testimony, and legal depositions.
Additional factors include steering angles, braking, use of lights, turn signals, speed, acceleration, engine rpm, cruise control, and anti-lock brakes.
Witnesses are interviewed during accident reconstruction, and physical evidence such as tire marks are examined.
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The length of a skid mark can often allow calculation of the original speed of a vehicle for example. Vehicle speeds are frequently underestimated by a driver, so an independent estimate of speed is often essential in accidents.
Inspection of the road surface is also vital, especially when traction has been lost due to black ice, diesel fuel contamination, or obstacles such as road debris.
Data from an event data recorder also provides valuable information such as the speed of the vehicle a few seconds before the collision.
As part of the investigation of a vehicle accident, an investigator typically documents evidence at the accident site and the damage to the vehicles.
The use of 3-dimensional laser scanning has become a common method for documentation. The product of scanning is a 3D point cloud that can be used to take measurements and create computer models used in the analysis of the accident.
3D simulation and forensic animation
The 3D data can be incorporated into many of the computer simulation programs used in accident reconstruction.
The 3D point clouds and models can also be used for creating visuals to illustrate the analysis and to show views of witnesses and the involved drivers.
Many new vehicles are equipped with onboard “Crash Data Recorders or Event Data Recorders” (CDR or EDR). The Bosch CDR Tool is a commercially available tool, allowing to image crash data directly from all supported vehicles giving a detailed report of critical data parameters leading up to and during a crash.
Some of the parameters include pre-crash data, vehicle speed, brake status, throttle position, ignition cycles, delta-V, seat belt status, and others.
Hyundai and Kia as well as most heavy commercial vehicles are equipped with EDR, however are not supported by Bosch equipment.
To access this information a diagnostic retrieval tool unique to these manufacturers is required.
(Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/… license.)
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